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The Design – Natural Convection Heat Transfer Transient Analysis on a Solid Cylinder | ANSYS Fluent

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Natural convection is a type of flow, of motion of a liquid such as water or a gas such as air, in which the fluid motion is not generated by any external source (like a pump, fan, suction device, etc.) but by some parts of the fluid being heavier than other parts. In most cases, this leads to natural circulation, the ability of a fluid in a system to circulate continuously, with gravity and possible changes in heat energy. The driving force for natural convection is gravity. For example, if there is a layer of cold dense air on top of hotter less dense air, gravity pulls more strongly on the denser layer on top, so it falls while the hotter less dense air rises to take its place. This creates a circulating flow: convection. As it relies on gravity, there is no convection in free-fall (inertial) environments, such as that of the orbiting International Space Station. Natural convection can occur when there are hot and cold regions of either air or water because both water and air become less dense as they are heated. But, for example, in the world’s oceans, it also occurs due to saltwater being heavier than freshwater, so a layer of saltwater on top of a layer of fresher water will also cause convection.

Natural convection has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers because of its presence both in nature and engineering applications. In nature, convection cells formed from air raising above sunlight-warmed land or water are a major feature of all-weather systems. Convection is also seen in the rising plume of hot air from fire, plate tectonics, oceanic currents (thermohaline circulation), and sea-wind formation (where upward convection is also modified by Coriolis forces). In engineering applications, convection is commonly visualized in the formation of microstructures during the cooling of molten metals, and fluid flows around shrouded heat-dissipation fins, and solar ponds. A very common industrial application of natural convection is free-to-air cooling without the aid of fans: this can happen on small scales (computer chips) to large-scale process equipment.

In this project, a heater performance and the movement of the heated airflow inside a solid cylinder are investigated. The air inside the room passes over a heater placed on one side of the room and a solid cylinder is responsible to push the heated air into the room. The laminar model is exploited to solve turbulent flow equations and the Energy equation is activated to calculate the temperature distribution inside the computational domain. It should be noted that the ideal gas equation is opted to capture the changes of the air density due to temperature change.

In this analysis, it has been tried to simulate and analyze Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Solid Cylinder using Ansys Fluent software.

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The Design – Natural Convection Heat Transfer Transient Analysis on a Solid Cylinder | ANSYS Fluent

Natural convection is a type of flow, of motion of a liquid such as water or a gas such as air, in which the fluid motion is not generated by any external source (like a pump, fan, suction device, etc.) but by some parts of the fluid being heavier than other parts. In most cases, this leads to natural circulation, the ability of a fluid in a system to circulate continuously, with gravity and possible changes in heat energy. The driving force for natural convection is gravity. For example, if there is a layer of cold dense air on top of hotter less dense air, gravity pulls more strongly on the denser layer on top, so it falls while the hotter less dense air rises to take its place. This creates a circulating flow: convection. As it relies on gravity, there is no convection in free-fall (inertial) environments, such as that of the orbiting International Space Station. Natural convection can occur when there are hot and cold regions of either air or water because both water and air become less dense as they are heated. But, for example, in the world’s oceans, it also occurs due to saltwater being heavier than freshwater, so a layer of saltwater on top of a layer of fresher water will also cause convection.

Natural convection has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers because of its presence both in nature and engineering applications. In nature, convection cells formed from air raising above sunlight-warmed land or water are a major feature of all-weather systems. Convection is also seen in the rising plume of hot air from fire, plate tectonics, oceanic currents (thermohaline circulation), and sea-wind formation (where upward convection is also modified by Coriolis forces). In engineering applications, convection is commonly visualized in the formation of microstructures during the cooling of molten metals, and fluid flows around shrouded heat-dissipation fins, and solar ponds. A very common industrial application of natural convection is free-to-air cooling without the aid of fans: this can happen on small scales (computer chips) to large-scale process equipment.

In this project, a heater performance and the movement of the heated airflow inside a solid cylinder are investigated. The air inside the room passes over a heater placed on one side of the room and a solid cylinder is responsible to push the heated air into the room. The laminar model is exploited to solve turbulent flow equations and the Energy equation is activated to calculate the temperature distribution inside the computational domain. It should be noted that the ideal gas equation is opted to capture the changes of the air density due to temperature change.

In this analysis, it has been tried to simulate and analyze Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Solid Cylinder using Ansys Fluent software.

Geometry & Grid

The geometry required for this analysis was generated by Ansys Design Modeler software. The meshing required for this analysis was also generated by Ansys Meshing software. The mesh type used in this analysis is unstructured. The total number of volume properties for geometry is 4,7487e-006 m³.

Model

In this analysis, the laminar viscosity model is used to check the fluid flow.

Boundary Condition

The flow of primary input design modeler geometry for this analysis is considered as velocity magnitude and is 1 (m/s). The flow output range is also considered as a pressure outlet for the flow output region and gauge pressure is equal to 0 (pascal). The inner wall is also considered a Stationary Wall.

Discretization of Equations

According to the type of flow, the SIMPLE algorithm is used to discretize the Pressure-Velocity Coupling of the solution method. The momentum equation has been discretized in the Second Order Upwind.

The results are presented as temperature contours as well as streamlines.

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